|Slight, irregular vaginal
bleeding that often is brownish; pain in the lower abdomen,
often on one side, and can be followed by severe
pelvic pain; shoulder pain; faintness or dizziness; nausea
||Ectopic pregnancy (the
fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, usually
in the fallopian tube).
||Blood tests; vaginal
or abdominal ultrasound exam (screening that uses high-frequency
sound waves to form pictures of the fetus on a computer
screen); laparoscopy (surgery to view the abdominal organs
directly with a viewing instrument).
||Because the embryo of
an ectopic pregnancy cannot survive, it is removed surgically;
or the woman is treated with a cancer drug, methotrexate,
which dissolves the pregnancy.
|Extreme thirst, hunger,
or fatigue (but usually no symptoms). Also, a blood sugar
value of 140 mg/DL or greater on a diabetes test.
(a form of diabetes that usually occurs in the second
half of pregnancy).
||Blood test one hour
after drinking a glucose (form of sugar) drink.
||Most women can control
their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise. Some
women with gestational diabetes or women who had diabetes
before pregnancy need shots of insulin to keep blood sugar
levels under control.
|Flu-like symptoms like
mild fever, headache, muscle aches and tiredness; loss
of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; dark-colored
urine and pale bowel movements; stomach pain; skin and
whites of eyes turning yellow (jaundice); liver problems.
Also often no symptoms.
||Hepatitis B (can be
passed on to the baby).
||Within 12 hours of birth,
your baby will need a shot called HBIG, along with the
first Hepatitis B shot.
|Often no symptoms, but
can include: small blisters or warts in the genital area;
fever; fatigue; aches and pains; vaginal discharge (yellowish,
bloody, green, gray, or thick and white like cottage cheese,
or with a strong odor); burning or pain when urinating;
itching around genital area; itching or burning in vagina;
pain in legs or buttocks; pain during sex; frequent yeast
infections; skin rash
||HIV or other sexually
transmitted diseases (can be passed on to the baby).
||Blood test. Physical
exam to look for symptoms in the throat, anus, or genital
area. Visual exam to inspect skin for rashes, growths
or sores, especially the area around the genitals. Pelvic
exam to look at the inside of the vagina (birth canal)
and cervix (opening to the uterus, or womb) and to feel
internal organs for any inflammation or growths. Taking
a sample of fluid or tissue from the vaginal, anal or
genital area to look for the presence of virus.
||Antiviral drugs; possible
|Flu-like illness with
fever, muscle aches, chills, and sometimes diarrhea or
nausea that can progress to severe headache and stiff
from the bacterium listeria monocytogenes, which can be
found in soft cheeses and ready-to-eat deli meats).
||Antibiotics (often prevent
infection in the baby).
|Mild flu-like symptoms,
or possibly no symptoms.
infection that can be passed on to the baby, which can
be contracted from cat feces or soil, or from eating raw
or undercooked meat that contains the parasite).
||Blood test. If the mother
is infected, the fetus can be tested through amniocentesis
(a test on the fluid around the baby, to diagnose certain
birth defects) and ultrasound.
||If fetus not yet infected,
mother can be given an antibiotic, spiramycin (to help
reduce severity of symptoms in the newborn). If the fetus
is suspected of being infected, the mother can be given
two medications, pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Infected
babies are treated at birth and through the first year
of life with these medications.
|Pain or burning when
urinating; pain in lower pelvis, lower back, stomach or
side; shaking, chills; fever; sweats; nausea, vomiting;
frequent or uncontrollable urge to urinate; strong-smelling
urine; change in amount of urine; blood or pus in urine;
pain during sex
||Urinary tract infection
(if left untreated, can travel to kidneys, which can cause
premature, or early, labor).
3 to 7 day course of amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, or cephalosporin.
|Painless vaginal bleeding
during the second or third trimester. In many cases, no
||Placenta previa (the
placenta, or the temporary organ joining the mother and
fetus, covers part or all of the cervix and can cause
severe bleeding usually toward the end of the second trimester
||An ultrasound exam.
||If diagnosed after the
20th week of pregnancy, but with no bleeding, requires
to cut back on activity level and increase bed rest. If
bleeding is heavy, requires hospitalization until mother
and baby are stable. If the bleeding stops or is light,
requires continued bed rest until baby is ready for delivery.
If bleeding doesn't stop or if pre-term labor starts,
baby will be delivered by cesarean.
|Vaginal bleeding during
the second half of pregnancy; cramping, abdominal pain,
and uterine tenderness.
(a condition in which the placenta separates from the
uterine wall before delivery, depriving the fetus of oxygen).
||An ultrasound exam.
||When the separation
is minor, bed rest for a few days usually stops the bleeding.
Moderate cases may require complete bed rest. Severe cases
(when more than half of the placenta separates) can require
immediate medical attention and delivery of the baby.
|Fetus stops moving around
and kicking. If, after 26 weeks of pregnancy, you count
fewer than 10 kicks in a day, or if the baby is moving
a lot less than usual, see your health care provider right
||Baby possibly in distress,
potential risk of stillbirth.
||A nonstress test (NST)
(measures the response of the baby's heart rate to each
movement the baby makes as reported by mother or seen
by a health care provider on an ultrasound screen); contraction
stress test (usually ordered if the nonstress test shows
a problem - stimulates the uterus to contract with the
drug pitocin to look at the effect of contractions on
the baby's heart rate); biophysical profile (BPP) (a combination
of the NST and an exam of the baby's breathing, body movement,
muscle tone, and amount of amniotic fluid).
||Treatment depends on
results of tests. If a test suggests a problem, this does
not always mean the baby is in trouble. It may only mean
that the mother needs special care until the baby is delivered.
This can include a wide variety of things (such as bed
rest and further monitoring) depending on the mother's
|High blood pressure
(usually around 140/90); protein in the urine; swelling
of the hands and face; sudden weight gain (1 pound a day
or more); blurred vision; severe headaches, dizziness;
intense stomach pain
blood pressure (preeclampsia, also called toxemia). Usually
occurs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.
||Blood pressure test;
urine test; evaluation by a health care provider.
||The only cure is delivery,
which may not be best for the baby. Labor will probably
be induced if condition is mild and woman is near term
(37 to 40 weeks of pregnancy). If a woman is not yet ready
for labor, her provider may monitor her and her baby closely.
May require bed rest at home or in hospital, until blood
pressure stabilizes or until delivery.
painful or painless, anytime during pregnancy, that occur
more than four times an hour, or are less than 15 minutes
apart; menstrual like cramps that come and go; abdominal
cramps with or without diarrhea; dull backache that may
radiate around to the abdomen; increase in or change in
color in vaginal discharge; constant or intermittent pelvic
||Early or pre-term labor
(labor occurring after 20 weeks, but before 37 completed
weeks of pregnancy).
||Monitoring of uterine
contractions by wearing an elastic belt around waist that
holds a transducer or small pressure-sensitive recorder.
Can be worn at the health care provider's office, hospital,
||Lie down with feet elevated;
drink 2 or 3 glasses of water or juice. If symptoms do
not subside within one hour, contact health care provider.
May require medications called tocolytics or magnesium
sulfate to stop contractions.
|Intense feelings of
sadness, guilt, despair, helplessness, anxiety, irritability,
which may disrupt your ability to function; appetite changes;
thoughts of self-harm or harming your baby; "baby
blues" haven't gone away after 2 weeks.
(a serious kind of depression that needs medical attention
||Evaluation by a health
||Can be successfully
treated in most cases with antidepressant medication,
psychotherapy, participation in a support group, or a
combination of these treatments.
|Soreness or a lump in
the breast accompanied by a fever and/or flu-like symptoms;
possibly nausea and vomiting; yellowish discharge from
the nipple; breasts feel warm or hot to the touch; pus
or blood in the milk; red streaks near the area; symptoms
could come on severely and suddenly.
||Breast infection (mastitis).
||Evaluation by a health
||If symptoms are not
relieved within 24 hours of the following steps, see a
health care provider (you may need an antibiotic). Relieve
soreness by applying heat (heating pad or small hot-water
bottle) to the sore area. Massage the area, starting behind
the sore spot. Use your fingers in a circular motion and
massage toward the nipple. Breastfeed often on the affected
side. Rest. Wear a well-fitting supportive bra that is
not too tight.
|A low-grade fever and
tiredness followed by a facial rash that looks like "slapped
cheeks." The rash also can look lace-like and be
on the trunk, legs, and arms. Some adults do not have
the rash, but may have painful and swollen joints.
||A viral infection called
fifth disease, caused by the human parvovirus
B19. Many women of childbearing age are immune to this
virus, and most women who are infected during pregnancy
will not have serious problems as a result. But, there
is a small danger that the virus can infect the fetus
in some women. This raises the risk of miscarriage within
the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. In women who have problems
with their immune systems or with red blood cell disorders,
such as sickle-cell disease, infection can cause severe
||Based on appearance
of the rash. A specific blood test can be done to confirm
||No specific treatment,
except for blood transfusions that might be needed for
people who have problems with their immune systems or
with red blood cell disorders. There is no vaccine to
help prevent infection with this virus.